Traditional recipes

Provencal Endive Salad

Provencal Endive Salad

Belgian endive salad with a vinaigrette with olive oil, sherry vinegar, garlic, and anchovies.

Photography Credit:Elise Bauer

Belgian endive (correctly pronounced “on-DEEV”, though most people around here say, “N-dive” and good luck getting them to change) is a lettuce-like vegetable that is often used with the leaves acting as little boats, to hold appetizer tidbits.

The leaves are delicate tasting, just slightly bitter, exquisite.

Belgian endive is a chicory, like radicchio or curly endive, that commercially is grown completely indoors, away from light, in order to result in the delicate leaves we enjoy.

Exposed to light, the leaves turn green and become much more bitter. They grow like a forced bulb on top of a large root the size of a fat carrot.

Endives are grown in France, Belgium, and also in California.

This recipe is a favorite of my French friend Guy (pronounced “Gee” with a hard “G”) who grew up in Provence, and whose mother made this salad for the family every Saturday.

It’s a simple preparation—thickly sliced endive leaves tossed in an anchovy and garlic vinaigrette.

The anchovies are key! They are what make this salad “Provencal” as anchovies can be found in so many preparations in Provence. Also anchovies are an umami bomb, and are the perfect complement to the slightly bitter endive leaves.

Do you use endives in your cooking, or do you have a favorite endive salad? Please let us know about it in the comments.

Provencal Endive Salad Recipe

Whole salt preserved anchovies are preferred, but you can also use anchovy paste, perhaps a couple teaspoons, or more to taste, mixed in with the dressing.

Ingredients

  • 6 heads of Belgian endive
  • 2-3 Tbsp extra virgin olive oil
  • 2 teaspoons sherry vinegar (optional)
  • 1/4 teaspoon finely minced fresh garlic
  • 6 to 12 small oil-packed salted anchovy fillets (jarred or canned), to taste
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • Pinch of freshly ground black pepper

Method

1 Make the dressing: In a large serving bowl, stir the minced garlic into the olive oil. Roughly chop the anchovy fillets and add them to the oil. Add the salt and pepper and the sherry vinegar.

Let the dressing sit and the oil infuse while you prep the endives (about 5 minutes).

2 Prep the endives: Strip off and discard any outer tired leaves from the endives. Cut off and discard the hard root end of the endives.

Slice the endives crosswise into 1-inch wide pieces. Cut the core end, if thick, into halves or quarters.

3 Toss endive with dressing: Add the chopped endive leaves to the serving bowl with the dressing, and toss gently until all of the endive leaves are lightly coated in the dressing.

Serve immediately.

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  1. For dressing
    • 1/4 cup Champagne vinegar
    • 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard
    • 2 large garlic cloves, minced
    • 1/2 teaspoon sugar
    • 1/3 cup extra-virgin olive oil
  2. For salad
    • 1 pound green beans, trimmed and halved
    • 1 pound small (1- to 2-inch) yellow-fleshed potatoes such as Yukon Gold
    • 2 (6-ounce) cans tuna in olive oil, drained
    • 12 ounces cherry tomatoes, halved
    • 1/2 cup pitted Kalamata olives (3 ounces)
    • 3 tablespoons rinsed drained bottled capers (1 ounces)
    • 1/2 cup finely chopped flat-leaf parsley
    • 4 hard-boiled large eggs, quartered
  1. Make dressing:
    1. Whisk together vinegar, mustard, garlic, sugar, 1/2 teaspoon salt, and 1/4teaspoon pepper, then add oil in a slow stream, whisking until emulsified.
    1. Cook beans in a pot of boiling salted water (2 tablespoons salt for 6 quarts water), uncovered, until tender, 5 to 6 minutes. Immediately transfer with a slotted spoon to a bowl of ice water to stop cooking. Drain beans and pat dry.
    2. Add potatoes to boiling water and simmer, uncovered, until tender, about 20 minutes, then drain. Halve potatoes while still warm.
    3. Gently flake tuna and toss with 1 tablespoon dressing.
    4. Toss potatoes and beans with tomatoes, olives, capers, parsley, and remaining dressing in a large bowl. Season with salt and pepper and top with tuna and eggs.

    Endive pomegranate salad

    Before you get down to work making this endive pomegranate salad, it’s important for you to know its health benefits. Firstly, the antioxidant power of pomegranate stands out.

    This fruit contains anthocyanins, a phytonutrient pigment. Experts discovered that phytonutrients can prevent the development of chronic diseases.

    This is because they can neutralize free radical formation, thus modulating tissue and organ oxidation and inflammation. This property is essential to slow down aging.

    On the other hand, we must mention the fiber endive provides. Fiber is an indigestible substance that can improve digestive system health.

    Firstly, it’s able to prevent constipation by increasing the size of the fecal bolus. In addition, as a study published in the International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition states, its regular intake protects against colon cancer.

    This article may also interest you: Improving Mood by Adding Fiber Into the Diet

    Ingredients

    • 1 endive
    • 1 pomegranate
    • One garlic clove
    • Extra virgin olive oil
    • Vinegar
    • Salt

    Instructions

    The first thing to do is wash the endive well to remove any dirt. Then, cut it into small pieces and add to a mixing bowl.

    Open the pomegranate. It’s a very simple step. Simply cut it in half with a knife and extract all the seeds, which is the edible part. Then, place them in the mixing bowl, over the endive.

    Now you have to make the dressing, the secret of almost any salad. To do this, mince the garlic clove and place it in a glass. Then add some fine salt and a dash of olive oil.

    In addition, it’s also important to add a couple of tablespoons of wine vinegar and stir everything. After you finish the dressing, pour it over the salad.


    Salade d'endives aux oranges

    Ingredients

    • 4 Belgian endive
    • 2 oranges, peeled and cut in small pieces
    • 1/4 cup golden raisins
    • 2 tablespoons lemon juice (about 1 lemon)
    • 1/4 cup olive oil
    • 2 tablespoons minced red onion
    • salt and pepper

    Directions

    Prepare the endive by removing the core as described above. Slice in small pieces.

    Place the endive, orange pieces, and raisins in a salad bowl.

    Prepare a vinaigrette with the juice of the lemon, olive oil, minced onion and salt and pepper. Pour the vinaigrette on the salad and toss.

    Endive Salad Recipe Variations

    Here are some more ideas, but don't stop with my suggestions - I bet you can come up with your own tasty combination.

    Endives et pamplemousse: French cooking expert Richard Grausman recommends combining the bitter of endive with the bitter of pink grapefruit. Apparently the two bitters cancel each other out. This certainly sounds worth trying, and just imagine the boost for your immune system! Find the recipe in his cookbook French Classics Made Easy.

    Endives aux betteraves: Add sliced red beets, hard boiled eggs, Beaufort cheese (or other flavorful semi-firm white cheese), and chopped chives. Toss with a dressing made from crème fraîche, lemon juice and salt and pepper.

    Endives au chou-rouge: Add shredded red cabbage. Rub a salad bowl with a piece of peeled garlic. Toss the vegetables with vinaigrette or mayonnaise.

    Endives aux pommes: Add chopped apples and walnuts. Toss with vinaigrette.

    Other ingredients to try with Belgian endive include blue cheese, smoked salmon, pears, and pine nuts.

    By the way, endive leaves were made for dipping . Offer them along with the usual carrot and celery sticks the next time you serve a dip.


    Recipe Summary

    • 1/2 cup pine nuts (2 1/2 ounces)
    • 2 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons honey, preferably clover
    • 1 1/2 tablespoons cider vinegar
    • 2 teaspoons whole-grain mustard
    • 1/2 teaspoon Dijon mustard
    • 1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
    • Kosher salt and freshly ground pepper
    • 4 cups baby arugula
    • 2 Belgian endives&mdashhalved, cored and thinly sliced lengthwise
    • 4 ounces Maytag blue cheese, crumbled (1 cup)

    Line a baking sheet with parchment paper and lightly coat the parchment with cooking spray. In a nonstick skillet, combine the pine nuts with 2 tablespoons of the honey. Cook over moderately high heat, stirring, until the nuts are golden and coated with honey, 4 minutes. Pour the nuts and honey onto the baking sheet. Using a spatula, spread the nuts in an even layer let cool.

    In a bowl, whisk the remaining 2 teaspoons of honey with the vinegar and the mustards. Gradually whisk in the oil season with salt and pepper. In a bowl, toss the arugula with the endives and blue cheese. Break the honeyed pine nuts into small pieces and add them to the salad. Add the dressing, toss to coat and serve at once.


    Recipe Summary

    • 1/3 cup walnuts, coarsely chopped
    • 2 teaspoons grainy mustard
    • 1 teaspoon honey
    • 1 shallot, minced
    • 3 tablespoons cider vinegar
    • 1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
    • Coarse salt and ground pepper
    • 2 red apples, quartered, cored, and each quarter cut into 8 wedges
    • 3 ounces baby arugula, washed and dried (6 cups)
    • 1 Belgian endive, leaves separated, washed and dried
    • 1/4 cup fresh mint leaves, coarsely chopped
    • 2 ounces soft goat cheese, crumbled

    In a small skillet over medium heat, toast walnuts, stirring frequently until crisp and fragrant, about 5 minutes.

    In a large bowl, whisk together the mustard, honey, shallot, and vinegar until well combined. Whisk in the oil until thick season with salt and pepper.

    Add apple and arugula toss to coat. Arrange endive leaves on four serving plates, top with apple mixture and scatter mint, cheese, and walnuts over the top.


    Endive Salad Bites

    Appetizers are the little things you keep eating until you lose your appetite.

    Joe Moore
    I don’t know who Joe Moore is but I’m with him on this. The way I look at it, you might as well make the appetizer as yummy and nutritious as dinner. This one is sure to satisfy, or at least start your night off on a delicious, healthy and low cal note. I’m loving the three bite salad!

    I am a sucker for foods that have a nice presentation and are easy to eat appetizer style, my kind of eating! The shape of endive spears is perfect for stuffing. Just toss all the salad ingredients with the dressing and pile them up in the endive spear, or boats as I have always thought of them. Their slight bitterness is offset by the sweetness of the orange and grapes and the creaminess of the avocado and soft cheese. The vinaigrette is simple but helps to blend the flavors nicely and done in just a few minutes.

    Alternatively, you could julienne the endive and toss the whole thing together as a large salad. Either way, delicious!

    The first time I made this salad was when I was getting weekly CSA boxes and my endive came with an informational blurb which I found quite interesting. Endive is a member of the chicory family (which makes me think of coffee for some reason). Belgian endive is grown from chicory roots in a dark environment, which is why their tender leaves are such a light color. I was enthralled, so I googled, and here is what endive looks like growing. At first glance I thought I was looking at a photo of a factory chicken farm! You can click on the photo link for the full story on endive.

    For their pale complexions, endive are surprisingly nutritious, providing many valuable vitamins and minerals, including vitamin C, calcium, iron and zinc, among many others. The biggest surprise is that it is a good source of beta-carotene which we usually attribute to the orange vegetable family. But that’s not all. It has more than 50% of the potassium of a banana. Not too bad for our pale friend, the endive. It also makes a darn good edible appetizer boat.

    1 head Belgian endive
    1 orange or grapefruit
    1 avocado
    1/2 cup red grapes
    4 scallions, chopped
    1/3 cup crumbled goat, gorgonzola or feta cheese (or vegan Vio Life Feta or Miyoko’s Classic Chive soft cheese)
    1/3 cup cilantro or parsley, chopped (or more for garnish)

    2 Tbsn olive oil
    1 Tbsn balsamic vinegar
    1 Tbsn red wine or apple cider vinegar
    salt and pepper to taste

    • Cut the ends off orange and remove the peel by cutting in a downward motion going all the way around. Cut into wheels and then sections. Place in a large bowl.
    • Slice grapes and admire their gorgeous jewel toned colors.
    • place in the bowl with the oranges.
    • Halve avocado and cut into pieces a similar size to the orange segments.
    • Add avocado, cilantro, scallions and crumbled goat cheese to the bowl.
    • Prepare marinade and drizzle over salad sparingly. You can always drizzle more later and since they are to be eaten by hand, you don’t want them too drippy.
    • Cut the core end off the endive. Clean by gently wiping both sides with a lightly damp paper towel. Pull off as many leaves as you want to use. The remainder can be stored in the refrigerator under a lightly damp paper towel. Place 1-2 tablespoons of salad into each endive spear. Arrange on a platter and garnish with extra cilantro.

    Endive Salad Bites

    • Servings: 12 pieces
    • Time: 15 minutes
    • Difficulty: easy

    1 head Belgian endive
    1 orange or grapefruit
    1 avocado
    1/2 cup red grapes
    4 scallions, chopped
    1/3 cup crumbled goat, gorgonzola or blue cheese (or vegan Vio Life Feta or Miyoko’s Classic Chive soft cheese)
    1/3 cup cilantro or parsley, chopped (or more for garnish)

    2 Tbsn olive oil
    1 Tbsn balsamic vinegar
    1 Tbsn red wine or apple cider vinegar
    salt and pepper to taste


    Salad Bites: endive boats with apple and cheddar

    Looking for a quick, easy, and healthy appetizer to bring to a potluck? Try endive boats. These perfect little salad bites are sure to be a big hit and break up the mix of all of those heavy dips and nachos at the party.

    The Research

    It is especially important to choose organic when you are considering your choices of dairy, such as the cheddar included in this recipe, because of organic dairy's health benefits. For example, one research that was published this year showed that organic milk has a healthier nutritional profile than conventional milk. Specifically, the study showed that organic milk contains 25 percent less omega-6 fatty acids and 62 percent more omega-3 fatty acids than conventional milk, yielding a 2.5-fold higher omega-6: omega-3 ratio in conventional compared to organic milk. This is important for your health, because current Western diets are notoriously unbalanced when it comes to omega fatty acid profiles, providing unhealthily high omega-6 levels and low omega-3 levels. High omega-6 and low omega-3 levels are associated with many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Low omega-6:omega-3 ratios, on the other hand, suppress these conditions. In addition to being more nutritious, organic dairy avoids the use of chemicals that you might not want to ingest on a daily basis such as pesticides, antibiotics, and growth hormones!

    The Recipe

    Makes about 35 “boats”

    Ingredients:

    • 5 large Belgian endives
    • Bag of baby arugula leaves
    • 2 apples thinly sliced
    • Organic sharp cheddar thinly sliced
    • 1/3 cup extra virgin olive oil
    • 2 tbs Dijon mustard
    • 2 tbs pure honey
    • 2 teaspoons apple cider vinegar

    Directions:

    Lay one baby arugula leaf inside the endive boat. Layer apple slice then cheddar slice. Top with another arugula leaf. Peel off the outer large leaves of the endive. These will be your boats. Repeat with all endives.

    TIP: When the leaves start to get too small to make boats, cut the endive in half lengthwise. Cut out the core leaving the clustered leaves on the outside. Now you have two more boats to work with. You can also layer a few leaves to make a boat if your leaves are too narrow.

    To make honey mustard dressing:

    In a small bowl mix Dijon mustard, honey and vinegar until combined. Slowly whisk in olive oil. Salt and pepper to taste. Adjust honey and mustard to taste. Drizzle over endive boats right before serving.

    OTHER IDEAS: Instead of apple and cheddar, substitute pear and gorgonzola or beets and goat cheese with lemon vinaigrette. Top with chopped pecans or hazelnuts.


    Endive Salad with Roquefort

    Line a rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper or silpat. Caramelize the walnuts by putting them in a frying pan or skillet over medium-high heat with the sugar, salt, cayenne, and walnut oil. Cook until the sugar is caramelized and turns an amberish, dark brownish color, stirring occasionally to make sure all the nuts are coated, about 3 minutes. Do not turn your back on the nuts as they are caramelizing. Immediately transfer the caramelized walnuts to the baking sheet, spread in a single layer, and let cool.

    Discard the outer leaves of the endives. Slice each endive crosswise into rings or, for a more dramatic presentation, trim the stem ends, peel the leaves away from one another, and use them whole.

    In a large salad bowl, gently toss all the salad ingredients.

    Whisk the oil, vinegar, and mustard together really well until emulsified. Season and add the chives and a good squeeze of lemon juice to taste and a drop of honey, if desired.

    Drizzle the vinaigrette over the salad and gently toss so that everything is well coated. Serve immediately.

    Recipe Testers' Reviews

    Linda Pacchiano

    This is a very satisfying salad that can be served as a starter or lunch entrée. The components complement each other perfectly to create a nice combination of sweet, salty, crunchy, and creamy. I only wanted to serve half the recipe as a lunch for 2, so I combined and dressed half the ingredients and kept the rest in the refrigerator for the following day. My salad didn't look exactly like the photo because I used all yellow Belgian endive. Also, I used mixed salad greens instead of watercress. The walnuts can be made and eaten as a snack whether or not you're making the complete salad. You can use more than a pinch of cayenne if you like things spicier. You'll know when the nuts are done because the sugar turns dark, and you'll smell it and see a little smoke. You need to quickly remove the nuts to a parchment-lined baking sheet or a Silpat to stop the cooking and let them cool. The amount of vinaigrette was correct in proportion to the salad ingredients.

    Camilla Maybee

    The best way I can think of to sum up this dish is "A Vineyard Tour in a Salad." Between the bitterness of the endive, sweetness of the candied walnuts, freshness of the grapes, and richness of the cheese, this is so wonderfully balanced and makes for a fantastic appetizer or even light lunch alongside a nice citrusy Sauvignon Blanc. The dressing was just right as a vinaigrette—flavorful enough to add a little kick but not so overbearing that it masked any of the main event. I used mixed greens instead of watercress. The amount of vinaigrette was just right for 4 decently sized (but not meal-sized) salads.

    Anna Scott

    I adore this elegant recipe because, to me, it has all the elements of a perfect salad. It starts with a mixture of greens that add a nice variety of taste and texture: peppery, tender watercress and sliced rounds of crisp endive. Next you have a bit of crunch from the candied walnuts. (I loved the slight heat that the cayenne gave the toasted nuts, and the amount of brown sugar was perfect they became a bit caramelized in the pan which was a delight.) Next comes a bit of sweetness from the red grapes, which were a lovely pairing with the creamy Roquefort cheese. And more crunch from sliced radishes, yum! This is a lovely base recipe for a mustardy-honey vinaigrette which really brings the whole salad together. So a lot of flavor here, plus nutrition, and it was very pretty! (And yippee for me, all of these elements happen to be some of my favorite ingredients and flavors as well!) I did use the honey, as I thought the sweetness would go well with the blue cheese. In terms of caramelizing the walnuts, it only took about 3 minutes over medium-high heat, but I watched them very carefully so that the sugar didn't burn and stirred very often. The cue that they were done was the smell of toasted nuts and their medium-brown color. I poured them onto a piece of parchment to cool and harden. I served this elegant salad as a main course salad with a side of seared scallops.

    If you make this recipe, snap a photo and hashtag it #LeitesCulinaria. We'd love to see your creations on Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter.


    Recipe Summary

    • 1/2 loaf rustic bread
    • 3 tablespoons plus 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil, divided
    • Coarse salt and freshly ground pepper
    • 1/4 cup coarse-grain mustard
    • 2 tablespoons finely chopped shallot
    • 1/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice (from 2 lemons)
    • 1/2 cup chopped fresh basil leaves
    • 2 pounds mixed baby romaine, radicchio di Treviso, and Belgian endive (about 5 heads romaine, 3 heads radicchio, and 3 heads endive)
    • 3 ounces Parmesan cheese, shaved into curls with a vegetable peeler

    Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Tear bread into bite-size pieces, and toss with 3 tablespoons oil. Season with salt and pepper. Bake on a rimmed baking sheet until golden brown, about 9 minutes.

    Whisk together mustard, shallot, lemon juice, basil, and remaining 1/2 cup oil. Season with salt and pepper.

    Trim core ends of salad greens. Cut romaine heads in half lengthwise, and radicchios and endives into quarters lengthwise. Place half the wedges on a platter, and drizzle with 1/4 cup dressing. Top with remaining wedges, and drizzle with another 1/4 cup dressing. Scatter with cheese and croutons, and serve remaining dressing on the side.


    In Endive Salad, tangy citrus tames a bitter vegetable

    Most of my vegetable recipes come from me walking around a produce section until my stomach says, “That looks good. We should eat that.” I’m driven by impulse, throwing things into my cart as my body dictates, and when I get home I do my best to make sense of what I purchased in my fugue state. On a recent trip to H Mart I came across some beautiful endive, why my body told me it wanted to eat with grapefruit. I know better than to argue with my body, because it has ways of making me suffer. (Earlier that day I had chosen not to eat candy for breakfast, and as punishment I got the Kars4Kids jingle stuck in my head for two hours.) Once I got into the kitchen, my brain finally caught up to what my stomach was thinking: What I had on my counter was a mystery equation, and I had to figure out how to put the components together in perfect balance.

    Endive can be a tricky little bastard, because even though it’s just the right kind of bitter, that bitterness can be a bit much. The flavor softens quite nicely when grilled, but that takes it almost too far in the opposite direction. I want some of endive’s bitterness, just not all of it. So I removed the outermost leaves, split the endive in half, seared it cut-side down, and nestled it back into the raw leaves. One part of the equation down!

    I knew my stomach/brain had insisted on grapefruit because endives really need sweetness and acidity to balance them out. Also, I love grapefruit. I started to supreme the grapefruit, but after a few pieces I remembered what a pain in the ass that is, and I had no desire to do that to a whole bag of grapefruit. Instead, I supremed only one, then cut the rinds off two more and cut into slices. Then, to amp up their natural sweetness, I seared those slices in the pan I used for the endive, which caramelized their sugars and caused the tasty bits to separate from the membranes, thus saving me from cutting them away by hand. I added a bit of honey, a big pinch of salt, and some Champagne vinegar, cooked everything for a minute or so until jammy, and put that between the cooked and raw endive. Second part of the equation: solved!

    I put the endive and grapefruit together on a platter, gave it a taste, and decided that while the result was pretty solid, it still wasn’t perfectly balanced. One of the most enjoyable things about bitter vegetables like endive is that they beg for lots of acidity, and this salad still needed more. I didn’t even bother with a vinaigrette—I just sprinkled a bit more good vinegar over the top. To give the whole thing a bit of an aromatic flourish, I sprinkled on a bit of five spice powder. Equation: complete.

    This all sounds like a big ol’ fancy to-do, doesn’t it? It certainly tastes like one, but in reality, this dish came together in about 15 minutes. Make this as a work-from-home lunch, then save the leftovers for dinner. This is one of those salads that manages to get even better when it sits around for a while, even if it starts to look like a bit of a mess. But seriously, who cares about a messy salad when it tastes so damn good?

    Seared Endive & Grapefruit Salad

    • 1 to 1½ lbs. small endive (don’t worry too much about exact quantities—it’s a salad!)
    • 3 medium grapefruits
    • 3 Tbsp. Champagne vinegar, white wine vinegar, or white balsamic vinegar, plus a bit extra for serving
    • 1½ Tbsp. honey
    • Kosher salt
    • Freshly cracked black pepper
    • 2-4 Tbsp. neutral cooking oil, like grapeseed or canola
    • 1 tsp. five spice powder

    Use a sharp knife to cut the rinds off the grapefruit. Use a small paring knife to supreme one grapefruit into segments put in a small bowl and set aside. Cut the remaining grapefruits horizontally into thick 1.5" slices, removing any seeds you come across.

    Trim the bottoms off the endives, then remove their crispy outer leaves and put those on a platter. Split the endive centers in half. (If you have trouble handling the middle sections, jab them with a toothpick to hold their layers together.) Coat the bottom of a nonstick skillet with oil, then put over high heat until it begins to smoke. Add the endive centers cut side down, sear for 1-2 minutes until they begin to blacken, then move to a plate. Add more oil if needed, then add the thick grapefruit slices and leave them undisturbed for at least 2 minutes. When the bottoms have caramelized, flip them over. As the grapefruit cooks it’ll begin to fall apart into mush, with the pulp separating from the membrane—use a wooden spoon to help this process along, smooshing the membrane to extract any juices, then pick it up with tongs and discard. Add the vinegar and honey to the skillet and cook until jammy (about 1-2 minutes), then remove from heat.

    Spoon a bit of the cooked grapefruit into the raw endive leaves, then nestle in the seared endive centers. Add the supremed grapefruit segments to the platter, then season everything with salt, pepper, and five spice powder. Drizzle on another tablespoon or so of vinegar, or just bring the bottle to the table and add vinegar to taste. As always, with salad, the last step is tasting for yourself and tweaking the seasonings until the salad sparks joy.